(A. albifrons), a smaller species than the last, spends the summer in northern Europe and Siberia and possibly Greenland, and in winter comes to southern Europe, India, and China. It may be known by the white on the forehead and at the base of the upper mandible, and by the orange-yellow bill, legs, and feet. It is pretty generally distributed over the entire Arctic region of the Old World, breeding near the coast-line of the Arctic Ocean, and also on the larger rivers and bays. The American White-fronted or Laughing Goose (A. albifrons gambeli) is almost exactly similar to the Old World form except in size, being uniformly larger. It breeds in the high Arctic regions and in winter spreads over all the southern portions of North America, being, how-ever, most abundant in the western and central portions and rare in the eastern. It has been found very abundantly along the Yukon, nesting in communities, and laying six to ten eggs in a depression in the sand without any kind of a nest or lining. Mr. MacFarlane, chief factor of the Hudson Bay Company, reports having taken about one hundred nests in Arctic America between the years 1861 and 1865. Like the nests along the Yukon, they were a mere cavity in the ground, but in every instance that fell under his notice they were lined with hay, feathers, and down, and the number of eggs did not exceed seven.
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